(Fig. However, a slight longitudinal furrow may sometimes be visible separating the setae of each AB, suggesting that the ABs each represent two subquadrate blisters that have merged. (immature ♀ HT, BMNH, non vidi): Type presumed extant. The females form carefully constructed nests out of regurgitated food, and afterwards lay their single egg into it. – de Saussure, 1860: 325. serratus. The UV stacks were subjected to a temperature adjustment to 10,000 K to render more clarity and detail. Non-type lot 2: labelled ‘Paratypes’, collected 8 March 1936, from Creve Coeur Lake Park, St. Louis Co., MO, USA, containing seven specimens belonging to three species: two males of Ps. Although some initial efforts have been made (Withrow, 1988; Djursvoll et al., 2000), a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis addressing genus-level relationships in Polydesmidae remains missing. Process e1 elongate and straight, arising from thickened area; e2 large and recurved, originating close to base of e3; e3 subtriangular, varies from large to miniscule; e4 nearly identical to m4 in size and shape (Figs 10A, 11A, 12A). (♂ HT, non vidi; five ♂ PT and eight ♀ PT, VMNH, vidi): From Pinnacles of Dan, ~4 miles southwest of Vesta, Patrick Co., VA, USA, collected 22 April 1972. Coastal plain of southeastern Virginia south to South Carolina. Both images mirrored to appear as right gonopod. eyes c... As a nature enthusiast and bird lover I spend a lot of time outdoors and ‡An ectal flange is present and might be homologous to process e3. Short vertical and oblique lines represent positions of tergal setae and the small circles in each LB represent the ozopores. Withrow (1988) applied Hoffman’s system to each of his recognized species. Denticles moderate to obliterated. One vial contained five ♂ PT (VMNH PSE00044); the other vial contained eight ♀ PT (VMNH PSE00043). The genus was revised by Withrow (1988) in an unpublished Ph.D. thesis. Central paranotal blisters occupying two-thirds of paranotal breadth. As large millipedes go, this is the most familiar native US species. and National Science Foundation grant DEB 1655635 to P.E.M. Material for this study comprised specimens borrowed from natural history museums and individuals that were recently field collected using the methods described by Means et al. – Chamberlin & Hoffman, 1958: 65. ♂ HT intact with gonopods removed (gonopods non vidi). Hoffman (1974) homologized these processes as e1 and e2, respectively, and pointed out that although the telopodite of Ps. Anterior lateral and posterior lateral corners posterior to AMC and PMC, respectively, giving characteristic swept-back appearance. (♂ ST, USNM, non vidi, type lost): Bollman (1888) described an unspecified number of specimens from Little Rock, Pulaski Co., AR, USA. Attems (1898) established the genus Pseudopolydesmus with the type species Ps. All images mirrored to appear as right gonopod. 4, ♂ HT (USNM, vidi). canadensis and Ps. Ectal surface also with large flange (possibly homologous to e3) between processes m2 and m4 (Figs 23A, 24A, 25A). 4, ♂ HT (USNM, vidi, gonopods missing). ?Polydesmus pennsylvanicus C. L. Koch, 1847: 133, type material unknown. Pseudopolydesmus glaucescens – Attems, 1940: 141, uncertain placement. Hoffman emphasized that he did not examine type specimens, basing his classification solely on material conserved in the Virginia Museum of Natural History. Cylindrical diffusers were constructed from white copy-machine paper to mitigate glare. The blisters are arranged in transverse rows and are slightly to moderately inflated, appearing like a cobblestone road. Process m3 absent. The blisters are reasonably well circumscribed, and each typically carries a short seta on its most elevated surface or, in the posterior blister row, directed caudad from the posterior apex of the blister. The characteristic prefemoral bulge in males of Pseudopolydesmus, and comparison of walking legs in Pseudopolydesmus and Polydesmus (scanning electron micrograph). Processes e1, e3, m3 and m4 absent. Telopodite entirely arcuate and fishhook-shaped, section distal of pulvillus tightly curved. For example, a medial process between m2 and m4 must be labelled m3 based on position, whereas m4 is recognized by a tuft of special bristles that do not arise from sockets as setae, but project continuously from the cuticle. According to Hoffman (1999), Say collected millipedes on Assateague and Chincoteague Islands, off the eastern shore of Virginia. Using the UV technique, the researchers identified eight species—which had previously been miscategorized as 12—within the North American genus Pseudopolydesmus. The composited images were saved in uncompressed TIFF format. Process m1 small, medial of pulvillus; m2 large, subtriangular; m4 typically shaped, well separated from m2 of a similar size (Fig. 28B). Unlike true setae, these bristles are not socketed at the base; instead, they project continuously from the cuticle of the telopodite. Polydesmus paroicus Chamberlin, 1942b: 11, figs 37, 38, five ♂/♀ ST (USNM, vidi). The short blast of hummingbird migration, mostly in form of super – Chamberlin & Hoffman, 1958: 66. ?Polydesmus moniliaris – Williams & Hefner, 1928: 112, fig. Collected from Albany River, Hudson Bay, ON, Canada. – Chamberlin & Hoffman, 1958: 70. You won't be disappointed in this guide, I would consider it a must-have! Processes e1, e3 and m3 absent. Gonopod of Pseudopolydesmus pinetorum (FMNH INS1445, scanning electron micrograph). 16): Gonocoxa ventral lobe with single gonocoxal plate. B, Pseudopolydesmus paludicolus, live adult female, dorsal view (VTEC MPE01167). The posterior lateral corner (PLC) also bears a seta. inconstans and Po. 17, pl. I’ve ... *Tufted titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor)* Polydesmus erasus Loomis, 1943: 406, fig. defensive, often ill-tempered snake. pinetorum. Telopodite basally curved, more-or-less straight between pulvillus and process m4, terminally curved, basal half of acropodite distinctly thickened. – Hoffman, 1950: 222, fig. – Hoffman, 1999: 444. The North American millipede is also sometimes called the "pink millipede" and the "eastern red-ribbed millipede." Trailing margin moderately concave, less so than Ps. C. spinigerus and N. americanus [CREDIT: Univ. B, adult female Ps. 36, ♂/♀ ST (USNM, vidi). A, Pseudopolydesmus serratus, live adult male, dorsal view (VTEC MPE01173). Paratype (VMNH PSE00203, ulatraviolet enhancement). Features of the telopodite terminus in Pseudopolydesmus (scanning electron micrograph). It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. one of my favorite pastimes is feeding and watching birds. Owing to its unique position, offset ectad from the edge of the telopodite, we hypothesize that m3 is present only in Ps. Let me recommend this awesome, comprehensive guide. No type specimens of Ps. Pseudopolydesmus canadensis, metatergite and paranota of body ring 10. – Chamberlin & Hoffman, 1958: 71. Processes m1, m2 and m4 all medium-sized, subtriangular; m1 at base of pulvillus; m2 connected to e2 via weak transverse ridge (not as distinct as in Ps. Lateral blisters aligned with longitudinal axis. Many early authors (as late as Attems, 1940) published descriptions and gonopod illustrations of Ps. Clearly smaller than all other congeneric species. – Chamberlin & Hoffman, 1958: 66. For example, the pattern of seta-bearing dorsal blisters and gonopods of Pseudopolydesmus strongly resembles those of the Palaearctic species Polydesmus inconstans Latzel, 1883 and Polydesmus complanatus (Linnaeus, 1761). Polydesmus pinetorum Bollman, 1888: 3, ♂ HT (USNM, non vidi, type lost). Click the photo to be directed to Amazon. Holotype vial contains complete male with both dissected gonopods. (Figs 8, 33): Gonocoxa ventral lobe with two gonocoxal plates stacked dorsoventrally (Fig. Image: Antonio Rodríguez Arduengo – Koch, 1863a: 59, pl. Gonopod of Pseudopolydesmus paludicolus (VTEC MPE01170, ultraviolet enhancement). Denticles strongly distinct with unusually long, easily visible setae, but ALC indistinct. Adult body coloration is dark brown to gray with reddish-orange banding. Pseudopolydesmus modocus – Chamberlin, 1943c: 18. married at o... Beetles are often pretty good botanists, and when it comes beetle botanists Trailing margin only slightly concave, nearly straight. The anterior medial (AMC) and posterior medial (PMC) corners define the connection point of the paranota to the tergite, while the anterior lateral (ALC) and posterior lateral (PLC) corners delimit the outer edge of the paranota. nov.), and Polydesmus natchitoches is placed as a junior subjective synonym of Ps. – Gervais, 1847: 105. Polydesmus conlatus Chamberlin, 1943b: 36, fig. A, right gonopod, ectal view. Vial 1 contains one fragmented male with gonopods missing and genitalia vial containing two gonopods (most probably not from the same male). Trailing margin concave, strongly curved. Millipedes with bright colors, such as this member of the family Xystodesmidae, are more likely to secrete foul or toxic substances in defense. Control My Nikon v.4.3 was used to control the camera and set shutter, aperture and other settings. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. Based on their figure (fig. 69: fig. 1: fig. 3). Dixidesmus tallulanus Chamberlin, 1943c: 19, fig. Other vernacular names include "thousand-legger" or simply "diplopod". The posterior blister row is wider across the tergite than the median row, although the PB3 blisters may be very slight and not immediately obvious. Gonopod of Pseudopolydesmus minor. – Hoffman, 1999: 444. Pseudopolydesmus caddo Chamberlin, 1949: 97, fig. Click any of the countries below to see a detailed list of animals located in that country! Watch Queue Queue. A Pyrex dish (no. (Fig. caddo and Ps. Type lot 1: labelled ‘Types’, contains two intact males, two fragmented females, and two small vials; first small vial labelled ‘HT’ (by Withrow? Published on Feb 24, 2013 The North American millipede (Narceus americanus) is probably the most common millipede species in eastern North America. – Causey, 1952: 7 (= D. humilidens). ♂ HT in fragments with one loose gonopod. Dixidesmus conlatus – Chamberlin, 1943c: 18. serratus. canadensis, b. m3 absent; e1 absent or severely reduced (Fig. Trailing margin moderately concave, less so than Ps. and P.E.M. Ectal processes labelled e1, e2, e3, and e4. Highlighted words throughout the book encourage children to learn scientific terminology by using our vocabulary section. We found one type lot: labelled ‘branneri’ by Withrow, contains two intact males, one male with gonopods missing, five immature specimens and one small vial; small vial labelled ‘HT’, contains fragmented male with one gonopod missing. Pseudopolydesmus paludicolus, metatergite and paranota of body ring 13. CamLift v.2.6.0 (Visionary Digital/Dun, Inc.) was used to control the motorized lift of the system. Median blister row thicker than posterior blister row. Type material unknown, from ‘Pensylvanien’. Verhoeff (1931) later examined freshly preserved Pseudopolydesmus specimens (most probably Ps. Williams & Hefner (1928) reported Polydesmus moniliaris C. L. Koch, 1847 as common and abundant throughout the state of Ohio. Process e1 reduced to near absence; e2 large, recurved, combined on short, thick stalk with large, subtriangular e3 (Fig. Small, with male body length measured at 11 and 13 mm (N = 2; Withrow, 1988: 111). Connecting these four points allows overall paranota dimensions to be described as a square, rectangular, trapezoidal, parallelogram shaped or rhomboid. Furthermore, to describe the silhouette of the paranota in addition to their overall dimensions, we use the terms leading margin, trailing margin and distal margin. Pseudopolydesmus were found most often at the soil–leaf litter interface, but were sometimes also found clinging to the bark underneath logs or between matted leaves at the edges of swamps. Two live examples of Pseudopolydesmus. They're not insects—they’re actually more closely related to lobsters, shrimp, and crayfish. Two male paratype specimens from VMNH PSE00044 were individually relabelled and imaged (VMNH PSE00202* and VMNH PSE00203*). Process e2 very small, lobe-like (Fig. There is also a section on vocabulary so they learn many scientific terms. Male sterna with prominent paired lobes or tubercles of various shapes between leg pairs of body rings 5, 6, 7 and 8 (Fig. Our analysis of gonopodal and somatic characters was enhanced by inducing ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence in the cuticle of specimens. Southern Indiana east to West Virginia, south to central Virginia and north-central South Carolina. serratus. collinus, Ps. Central paranotal blisters occupying medial two-thirds of paranota. From the common swallowtail to the iridescent blue morpho, Thomas Marent's stunning photographs provide a close-up view of the remarkable family of insects known as Lepidoptera. The one pictured was photographed in the Laurel River Lake region of Kentucky. Narceus americanusis a large, North American millipede that can reach lengths of up to 10 cm as an adult. This book would be beneficial to anyone who loves butterflies and gardening. Strongly flanged medial surface bearing m2 and m3 (Figs 30–31) …………………………Ps. Processes e1, m3 absent. 3. UV-induced fluorescence photography was adapted for focus-stacking photographic methods and equipment. Pseudopolydesmus scopus – Chamberlin & Hoffman, 1958: 71. – Chamberlin, 1942b: 19, fig. Revalidation of the genus, The millipeds of eastern Canada (Arthropoda: Diplopoda), Annotated checklist of the millipeds of Florida (Arthropoda: Diplopoda), Millipeds from the eastern Dakotas and western Minnesota, USA, with an account of, The millipede type specimens in the collections of the Field Museum of Natural History (Arthropoda: Diplopoda), Zur Kenntnis der Diplopodenfauna Ungarns. We are grateful to Jonathan Coddington and Dana De Roche for the loan of the type specimens of Pseudopolydesmus from the USNM. Golovatch & Geoffroy, 2006; Golovatch, 2013). These medium-sized millipedes (up to ~35 mm in length) are commonly encountered under leaf litter and detritus in mixed forests. Pseudopolydesmus canadensis – [Withrow, 1988: 89, figs 55, 61, 70–73, 76, 109, 114, 122–126, map 6, tables 9–11.] After R.L. 2, ♂ HT (ANSP, non vidi). Dixidesmus catskillus Chamberlin, 1947: 24, fig. Often smaller than Ps. Species ID Suggestions Sign in to suggest organism ID. 37, two ♂ ST (MHNG, non vidi). Hoffman emphasized that confirmation of these taxonomic changes was needed. Polydesmus serratus Say, 1821: 106, type material not extant. – Shelley, 2000: 246. Pseudopolydesmus serratus – Attems, 1940: 141, uncertain placement. Vial 2 contains two fragmented females, one with everted vulvae. Ratio of anterior to posterior edge length smaller than in Ps. 4: The Millipede Order Siphonophorida in the United States and Northern Mexico Checklist of the millipeds of North and Middle America Gonopod structures are illustrated and annotated using explicitly defined terminology. Central paranotal blisters occupying two-thirds of paranotal breadth. Rubin M, Lamsdell JC, Prendini L, Hopkins MJ. Each finished composited photograph consisted of between ten (low magnification) and 50 (high magnification) individual photos. B, left gonopod, medial view (image mirrored to match right gonopod). Initially, samples were ultrasonically cleaned and dehydrated in an ethanol series (80, 90 and 95% and two times in 100%) and then air-dried overnight. Median blister row thicker than posterior blister row. Tergal blisters poorly differentiated, PB row nearly obliterated except lateral sulcus of PB3. – Attems, 1926: 139. 2). XIV. Djursvoll et al., 2000; Djursvoll, 2008; Golovatch, 2013). 4. 17): Corners of paranota forming a broad rectangle, nearer to a square than any other Pseudopolydesmus species. of Florida, L.Buss] B, right gonopod, medial view. zoologischen Museum befindlichen Myriopoden aus der Familie der, Monatsberichte der Königlich Preußischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Developpements compares des appendices copulateurs (gonopodes) chez, International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology, Die Grundlagen des natürlichen Systems, der vergleichenden Anatomie und der Phylogenetik, Exocuticular hyaline layer of sea scorpions and horseshoe crabs suggests cuticular fluorescence is plesiomorphic in chelicerates, Description of the Myriapodae of the United States, Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Faune des Myriapodes du Mexique avec la description de quelques espèces des autres parties de l’Amerique, Mémoires de la Société de Physiques et d’Histoire Naturelle de Genève, Mission Scientifique au Mexique et dans l’Amérique Centrale, Recherches Zoologiques, Sixième Partie, 2ème Section, Cave millipedes of the United States. B, left gonopod, medial view. 4). Scarlet Millipedes are a smaller (about 2.5″-3″) millipede that has naturalized in Florida. Virtual Presentation About Ants for the General Public, 5 Things to Know About Eastern Equine Encephalitis, Exploring Extremadura: Day 5 - Steppe Winds, Congratulations to Jason Ward - The First Winner of The Alongside Wildlife Foundation Outreach Award, Friends of the Garden Daily News - The FOG Blog, Travel with us to experience monarchs in Mexico. 4; Hoffman, 1974: 349) used the term for only the pulvillus in Pseudopolydesmus. The ninth leg pair remains as normal walking legs. Djursvoll et al., 2000: 43, fig. Die Gonopoden der Gattung, Some records and descriptions of polydesmoid millipeds from the United States, The Chicago Academy of Sciences Natural History Miscellanea, On nine North American polydesmoid millipeds, Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, On some genera and species of American millipeds, On four millipeds from Georgia and Mississippi, Some records and descriptions of diplopods chiefly in the collection of the academy, Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Some millipeds of the families Polydesmidae and Xystodesmidae, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, Records of American millipeds and centipeds collected by Dr. D. Elden Beck in 1950, Checklist of the millipeds of North America, Bulletin of the United States National Museum, The millipede family Polydesmidae in Southeast Asia, with notes on phylogeny (Diplopoda: Polydesmida), Two new and one little-known species of the millipede genus, Review of the Southeast Asian millipede genus, World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Notes on some Virginia millipeds of the family Polydesmidae, A new polydesmid milliped from the southern Appalachians, with remarks on the status of, Checklist of the millipeds of north and middle America, Virginia Museum of Natural History Special Publication, International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature. (♂ HT, three ♂ PT and five immature PT, USNM, vidi): Chamberlin (1946) nominated ♂ HT and described three ♀ and five immature PT, all from Pass Christian, Harrison Co., MS, USA, collected 15 February 1946 by J. Rapp and W. Rapp. Polydesmus neoterus Chamberlin, 1942b: 10, figs 30, 31, ♂ HT (USNM, vidi), synon. This disorder in Polydesmidae makes it difficult to unambiguously define the Nearctic genus Pseudopolydesmus Attems, 1898 in reference to its Palaearctic relatives and to the genus Polydesmus in particular. 15): Corners of paranota forming a roughly rhomboid quadrilateral, with ALC posterior to AMC and lateral to PLC. Eurasian polydesmids often have comparably more complex gonopods, with additional processes and branches in comparison to American representatives. Pseudopolydesmus pinetorum – Causey, 1952: 6, fig. aggressive Rufous Hummers, has passed the desert. Pseudopolydesmus americanus – Attems, 1940: 140, fig. Two ♂ ST both with gonopods removed; one is erroneously labelled ‘HT’ with gonopods in genitalia vial, left gonopod with tip broken off. FMNH INS1421, 1455, 1461, 1465, 1552, 1569, 3574, 6934*, 7632, 7699, 14219, 3120683*. – Peters, 1864: 539. Seminal canal originating medially before looping laterad, debouching at ectal base of pulvillus. Chamberlin (1942a) mentioned one female collected nearby but expressed doubt in its identity. Means JC, Francis EA, Lane AA, Marek PE. potenti... From time to time over the past five years on this blog I've mentioned my 1B). Dixidesmus branneri – Loomis & Hoffman, 1948: 54 (= Polydesmus conlatus; Dixidesmus christianus). Polydesmus branneri Bollman, 1887b: 620, ♂ HT (USNM, vidi). – Sierwald et al., 2005: 40. B, right gonopod, medial view. 1) Hope you are well and hanging in there as best as one might hope. Also note the characteristic silhouette of the gonopods of Ps. They have rounded, segmented bodies and many legs. Processes e1, e3 and m4 absent. collinus and Ps. With a thick, shiny armor and yellow-orange and black striping, this millipede may appear threatening. pinetorum (both with gonopods in situ, one with a single intact gonopod), two females of Ps. again king ... With the proliferation of nighttime security cameras, homeowners are seeing Edges meeting at ALC and PMC forming right angles, with posterior edge shorter than in Ps. I am proud to be chosen as part of this list of Entomology Blogs. It is easy enough to use to be beneficial to Children and Adults. Medium, with body length ranging from 13.6 to 25.6 mm and an average body length of 18.6 mm (N = 212; Withrow, 1988: 76, 199). Gonopod of Pseudopolydesmus caddo. I have been intrigued for years with a pair of Shumard oak trees outside Hoffman, in his checklist (Hoffman, 1999), recognized 12 Pseudopolydesmus species and implemented 15 new synonymies. However, paranota shape and tergal sculpture is distinct from that in the types of Ps. B, left gonopod, medial view (image mirrored to match right gonopod). At USNM, we found an additional type lot from Greenbrier Cove, Sevier Co., TN, USA: labelled ‘Paratype’, contains at least one female, several males, one dissected gonopod in genitalia vial and one small vial labelled ‘Lectoallotype’; the small vial contains one female with one dislodged vulva. Comparable in size or slightly smaller than Ps. caddo and Ps. erasus but less curved than Ps. paludicolus. 201. This is unlike male Polydesmus, in which tubercles of leg pairs 9 and 10 (the first two leg pairs directly posterior of the gonopods) are absent or very slight. canadensis. Holotype, Polydesmus natchitoches, from genitalia vial (USNM, ultraviolet enhancement). Diplopoden-Aufsatz, Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Systematik, Ökologie und Geographie der Tiere, Conference proceedings of SPIE: nature of light: light in nature IV, The millipedes and centipedes of Ohio [Ohio Biological Survey Bulletin 4(3)], Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs licence (, Peaceful revolution in genome size: polyploidy in the Nabidae (Heteroptera); autosomes and nuclear DNA content doubling, Integrative taxonomy of enigmatic deep-sea true whelks in the sister-genera, The tight genome size of ants: diversity and evolution under ancestral state reconstruction and base composition, Characters from the deciduous dentition and its interest for phylogenetic reconstruction in Hippopotamoidea (Cetartiodactyla: Mammalia), The braincase, brain and palaeobiology of the basal sauropodomorph dinosaur, About Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, https://doi.org/10.1093/zoolinnean/zlz020, https://collections-zoology.fieldmuseum.org/catalogue/956102, https://collections-zoology.fieldmuseum.org/catalogue/955981, https://wcsp.science.kew.org/namedetail.do?name_id=380053, http://millibase.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=894050, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Thin spine arising on distal flange of pulvillus, present in, Rather large, recurved spine, arising on combined stalk with, Medium-sized spine, arising at or close to base of, Small, most apical spine, usually hidden within tuft of terminal bristles, Flat spine with broad base, spade to claw shaped, arising at or near proximal flange of pulvillus, Medium to large spine, usually opposite to, Medium-sized spine, positioned proximal to, Point of inflection between paranotum and tergite, Copyright © 2020 The Linnean Society of London. Specimens were secured in a 50 mm glass Petri dish, embedded in a drop of clear hand sanitizer and covered with 70% alcohol. (♂ HT, one ♂ and two ♀ PT, USNM, vidi): From west side of Garnet Lake, Mackinaw Co., MI, USA, collected 31 July 1949. The distal margin bears serrated denticles that occur in a predictable pattern. The median row consists of four subquadrate blisters (MB1 and MB2) and the posterior row of six (PB1, PB2 and PB3). Gonopod of Pseudopolydesmus caddo. Large recurved e2 process or fused recurved e2+e3 process ………………………………………………… 2, b. e2 not recurved ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4, 2(1) a. Koch (1847) described the type locality only as ‘Nordamerika’. The lights were held in place with test-tube clamp laboratory stands and arranged radially around the stage at a distance of ~10 cm from the specimen, shining straight down to ensure that there was no glass between the light source and the specimen. caddo, 7(5) a. – Loomis, 1943: 405, fig. Gonocoxae large, with two long setae at the ventromedial margin. 16) ……………………………………………… Ps. Type lot 1: labelled ‘Male HT’ and labelled ‘branneri’ by Withrow, contains one male with gonopods. – Chamberlin & Hoffman, 1958: 69. The second book in a series of childrens books is complete. Both localities are in Natchitoches Par., LA, USA. High-pass filters were used to adjust white balance: 2.0–3.0 high pass for visible light and 5.0–6.0 high pass for UV. Size variable, comparable to Ps. He therefore synonymized Dixidesmus as a junior synonym of Pseudopolydesmus. nov. Pseudopolydesmus neoterus – Chamberlin, 1943c: 18. canadensis, Ps. In either case, all denticles bear one seta except the anteriormost denticle (ALC), which bears none. Edges meeting at ALC and PMC forming right angles, with posterior edge longer than in Ps. Gonopod of Pseudopolydesmus erasus (FMNH INS3120685, scanning electron micrograph). The four edges of this quadrilateral are referred to in this paper as the anterior edge (between AMC and ALC), posterior edge (PMC to PLC), medial edge (AMC to PMC) and lateral edge (ALC to PLC). Petra Sierwald, FLS, Derek A Hennen, Xavier J Zahnle, Stephanie Ware, Paul E Marek, Taxonomic synthesis of the eastern North American millipede genus Pseudopolydesmus (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Polydesmidae), utilizing high-detail ultraviolet fluorescence imaging, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, Volume 187, Issue 1, September 2019, Pages 117–142, https://doi.org/10.1093/zoolinnean/zlz020. These synonymies often addressed species names originally based on minute variations in gonopod morphology. serratus, denticles always distinct. Beck. – Chamberlin, 1951: 27. 51. Pseudopolydesmus erasus – [Withrow, 1988: 84, figs 19, 84, 88, 92, 108, 113, 122–126, map 5, tables 9–11.] Later, Chamberlin (1943c) erected the genus Dixidesmus for members of Pseudopolydesmus whose gonopod telopodites feature an elongate process distal to the pulvillus and a recurved ectal process. Lateral blisters unusually distinct, extending anteriorly past all setiferous denticles, aligned with longitudinal axis. 3140) was used as a pedestal on top of the stage. Clearly smaller than all other congeneric species. Median blister 2 much larger in area than MB1. I have found some huge ones, a very interesting find. Lisa Kanellos (FMNH) illustrated the line drawings (Figs 3, 4). Click the picture above, to visit their website and locate their contact info. Coast and coastal plain of the Gulf of Mexico, from eastern Texas to southern Mississippi. Their coloration varies from pink to brick red to brown, and their shallowly raised dorsal blisters give them the flat-backed appearance typical of other millipedes in the order Polydesmida (Figs 1, 2). It is fast becoming my buttefly bible. Notes are provided on the disposition of type material for each nominal species. A, left gonopod, ectal view. Some have flatter bodies, while others are very tubular. Common millipedes in Florida are the Florida ivory millipede (Chicobolus spinigerus), the North American millipede (Narceus americanus), and the invasive yellow-banded millipede (Anadenobolus monilicornis), also known as the yellow-striped millipede. @ErinM31 I've never kept Harpaphe, but my Apheloria female acted restless and wandered around the container like you described until I put her in a new setup that apparently she liked.