This aristocratic coalition was strong enough to liberate the princes, exile Mazarin, and impose a condition of virtual house arrest on Queen Anne. [128] It was widely repeated but also denounced as apocryphal by the early 19th century. [114], Line of succession to the French throne upon the death of Louis XIV in 1715. Over his lifetime, Louis commissioned numerous works of art to portray himself, among them over 300 formal portraits. Louis and Colbert also had wide-ranging plans to bolster French commerce and trade. German law ostensibly barred her from succeeding to her brother's lands and electoral dignity, but it was unclear enough for arguments in favour of Elizabeth Charlotte to have a chance of success. Leopold viewed French expansion into the Rhineland as an increasing threat, especially after their seizure of the strategic Duchy of Lorraine in 1670. Louis began his personal rule of France in 1661, after the death of his chief minister, the Cardinal Mazarin. Louis's formal style was "Louis XIV, par la grâce de Dieu, roi de France et de Navarre", or "Louis XIV, by the Grace of God, King of France and of Navarre". The final phases of the War of the Spanish Succession demonstrated that the Allies could not maintain the Archduke Charles in Spain just as surely as France could not retain the entire Spanish inheritance for Philip V. The Allies were definitively expelled from central Spain by the Franco-Spanish victories at the Battles of Villaviciosa and Brihuega in 1710. Nonetheless, it is indisputable that Louis' public image in most of Europe, especially in Protestant regions, was dealt a severe blow. He also commissioned "war artists" to follow him on campaigns to document his military triumphs. During his early reign, the kingdom affairs were mostly run by his mother and the Chief Minister, Cardinal Jules Mazarin. Vehemently anti-French, William (now William III of England) pushed his new kingdoms into war, thus transforming the League of Augsburg into the Grand Alliance. From 1647 to 1711, the three chief physicians to the king (Antoine Vallot, Antoine d'Aquin, and Guy-Crescent Fagon) recorded all of his health problems in the Journal de Santé du Roi (Journal of the King's Health), a daily report of his health. His heir was none other than the Archduke Charles, who secured control of all of his brother's Austrian land holdings. 1556332. The king could make appointments, formulate poli… Their stated intention was to return France to at least the borders agreed to in the Treaty of Nijmegen. This captured Franche-Comté and much of the Spanish Netherlands; French expansion in this area was a direct threat to Dutch economic interests. Only poverty-stricken Russia exceeded it in population, and no one could match its wealth, central location, and very strong professional army. Although Fouquet's financial indiscretions were not very different from Mazarin's before him or Colbert's after him, his ambition was worrying to Louis. Although Rigaud crafted a credible likeness of Louis, the portrait was neither meant as an exercise in realism nor to explore Louis' personal character. In 1673, Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette discovered the Mississippi River. Louis provided support in the 1665-1667 Second Anglo-Dutch War but used the opportunity to launch the War of Devolution in 1667. Reforms introduced by Louvois, the Secretary of War, helped maintain large field armies that could be mobilised much quicker, allowing them to mount offensives in early spring before their opponents were ready. But he could promise that Philip V would accept these terms, so the Allies demanded that Louis single-handedly attack his grandson to force these terms on him. The treaty yielded many benefits for France. This agreement divided Spain's Italian territories between Louis's son le Grand Dauphin and the Archduke Charles, with the rest of the empire awarded to Joseph Ferdinand. Louis' patriline is the line from which he is descended father to son. Louis and his wife Maria Theresa of Spain had six children from the marriage contracted for them in 1660. Louis XIV was born on 5 September 1638 in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. [81] He confirmed that Philip V retained his French rights despite his new Spanish position. Pre-revolutionary France was a patchwork of legal systems, with as many legal customs as there were provinces, and two co-existing legal traditions—customary law in the north and Roman civil law in the south. The Fronde thus gradually lost steam and ended in 1653, when Mazarin returned triumphantly from exile. No further churches were to be constructed, and those already existing were to be demolished. Most European rulers accepted Philip as king, some reluctantly. France, however, profited most from the settlement. The conclusion of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1668 also induced Louis to demolish Paris's northern walls in 1670 and replace them with wide tree-lined boulevards.[98]. At the age of 23, Louis XIV took full control of the kingdom and ruled without a chief minister. During the 1660s the King of France Louis XIV's most trusted minister was the son of a fabric merchant, named Jean-Baptiste Colbert. The principal claimants to the throne of Spain belonged to the ruling families of France and Austria. See Article History François-Michel Le Tellier, marquis de Louvois, (baptized January 18, 1639, Paris, France—died July 16, 1691, Versailles), secretary of state for war under Louis XIV of France and his most influential minister in the period 1677–91. Aided by politicians such as Jean-Baptiste Colbert, and more especially, Jules Mazarin, Louis stamped his rule on his kingdom. Louis de Rouvroy, who later became the Duc de Saint-Simon, was born in Paris, January 16, 1675. Conseil d'en haut ("High Council", concerning the most important matters of state)—composed of the king, the crown prince, the controller-general of finances, and the secretaries of state in charge of various departments. Louis XIV (1624–1715) As ruler of France for 72 years, Louis XIV had a tremendous impact on his nation’s domestic institutions. © Copyright 2021 History Today Ltd. Company no. He could agree to a partition of the Spanish possessions and avoid a general war, or accept Charles II's will and alienate much of Europe. He claimed descent from Charlemagne, but the story goes that his father, as a young page of Louis XIII., gained favour with his royal master by his skill in holding the stirrup, and was finally made a … Following these annexations, Spain declared war, precipitating the War of the Reunions. [30] Mazarin and Lionne, however, made the renunciation conditional on the full payment of a Spanish dowry of 500,000 écus. Although this was within his legal rights, the dragonnades inflicted severe financial strain on Protestants and atrocious abuse. [50] However, the pensions and privileges necessary to live in a style appropriate to their rank were only possible by waiting constantly on Louis. LOUIS XIV COMES TO POWER How did Louis XIV rule? This article deals with the children of Louis XIV and in turn their senior descendants. It had largely avoided the devastation of the Thirty Years' War. He also disallowed Protestant-Catholic intermarriages to which third parties objected, encouraged missions to the Protestants, and rewarded converts to Catholicism. Louis secured permanent French sovereignty over all of Alsace, including Strasbourg, and established the Rhine as the Franco-German border (as it is to this day). Louis' policy of the Réunions may have raised France to its greatest size and power during his reign, but it alienated much of Europe. Louis XIV ordered the surprise destruction of a Flemish city to divert the attention of these troops. [106] In 1661, Royal of the Academy was founded by Louis to further his ambition. Louis XIV’s domestic policy was to transform France.Louis XIV built on Louis XIII’s policy of extending absolute royal rule (centralised absolutism) to all parts of the kingdom.Louis was the archetypal absolutist monarch. He saw the persistence of Protestantism as a disgraceful reminder of royal powerlessness. It is now time that I govern them myself. [89], When he legitimized his children by Madame de Montespan on 20 December 1673, Françoise d'Aubigné became the royal governess at Saint-Germain. He had, for example, built an opulent château at Vaux-le-Vicomte where he entertained Louis and his court ostentatiously, as if he were wealthier than the king himself. [42] Then, in 1682, after the reception of the Moroccan embassy of Mohammed Tenim in France, Moulay Ismail, Sultan of Morocco, allowed French consular and commercial establishments in his country. [57] This discrimination did not encounter much Protestant resistance, and a steady conversion of Protestants occurred, especially among the noble elites. [40] Accordingly, by the late 1680s, France became increasingly isolated in Europe. [18] "In one sense, Louis' childhood came to an end with the outbreak of the Fronde. Her rationales for choosing Mazarin were mainly his ability and his total dependence on her, at least until 1653 when she was no longer regent. [100] Louis used court ritual and the arts to validate and augment his control over France. [15], The Frondeurs, political heirs of the disaffected feudal aristocracy, sought to protect their traditional feudal privileges from the increasingly centralized royal government. William and Mary were recognised as joint sovereigns of the British Isles, and Louis withdrew support for James II. Witnessing numerous desertions and defections, even among those closest to him, James II fled England. He first met her through her work caring for his children by Madame de Montespan, noting the care she gave to his favorite, Louis Auguste, Duke of Maine. Other scholars counter that there was little reason to reform institutions that largely worked well under Louis. Held the office of. He agreed that the entire Spanish empire should be surrendered to the Archduke Charles, and also consented to return to the frontiers of the Peace of Westphalia, giving up all the territories he had acquired over 60 years. Thanks to Louis, his allies the Electors of Bavaria and Cologne were restored to their prewar status and returned their lands.[88]. Philiipe II d'Orleans becomes the regent of France. Colbert become Finance Minister to Louis XIV in 1665. Depending on one's views of the war's inevitability, Louis acted reasonably or arrogantly. In 1681, Louis dramatically increased his persecution of Protestants. Although Louis XIV was not known to repose in any one of them the kind of confidence that his father had bestowed on Richelieu or his mother, Anne of Austria, on Mazarin, the appointment of a new first Minister was expected. Under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, a highly developed luxury product industry has been formed in France. Tapestries could be allegorical, depicting the elements or seasons, or realist, portraying royal residences or historical events. [3] The King surrounded himself with a variety of significant political, military, and cultural figures, such as Mazarin, Colbert, Louvois, the Grand Condé, Turenne, Vauban, Boulle, Molière, Racine, Boileau, La Fontaine, Lully, Charpentier, Marais, Le Brun, Rigaud, Bossuet, Le Vau, Mansart, Charles Perrault, Claude Perrault, and Le Nôtre. Condé's family was close to Anne at that time, and he agreed to help her attempt to restore the king's authority. This poor public opinion was compounded by French actions off the Barbary Coast and at Genoa. [123] The historian and philosopher Voltaire wrote: "His name can never be pronounced without respect and without summoning the image of an eternally memorable age". Thereafter, members of the League of Augsburg rushed to the peace table, and negotiations for a general peace began in earnest, culminating in the Treaty of Ryswick of 1697.[73]. Although it sanctioned slavery, it attempted to humanise the practice by prohibiting the separation of families. When Louis XIV was 23 years old, Cardinal Mazarin died. [113] Orléans, however, had Louis' will annulled by the Parlement of Paris after his death and made himself sole regent. He reportedly boasted, “L’état, c’est moi,”meaning “I am the state.” Although Louis XIV Europeans generally began to emulate French manners, values, goods, and deportment. The English and Dutch feared that a French or Austrian-born Spanish king would threaten the balance of power and thus preferred the Bavarian Prince Joseph Ferdinand, a grandson of Leopold I through his first wife Margaret Theresa of Spain (the younger daughter of Philip IV). Europe’s longest reigning monarch at the time, Louis XIV ruled France as an absolute monarch, backed by the Roman Catholic Church’s idea of the Divine Right of Kings. [35] Although Brandenburg was forced out of the war by the June 1673 Treaty of Vossem, in August an anti-French alliance was formed by the Dutch, Spain, Emperor Leopold and the Duke of Lorraine. Louis' patriline is the line from which he is descended father to son. This belief intensified the nobles' resentment. [5] By 1695, France retained much of its dominance, but had lost control of the seas to England and Holland, and most countries, both Protestant and Catholic, were in alliance against it. He sought to eliminate the remnants of feudalism persisting in parts of France and, by compelling many members of the nobility to inhabit his lavish Palace of Versailles, succeeded in pacifying the aristocracy, many members of which had participated in the Fronde rebellion during his minority. He danced four parts in three of Molière's comédies-ballets, which are plays accompanied by music and dance. As supporting evidence, they cite the literature of the time, such as the social commentary in Montesquieu's Persian Letters. Rather, they focus on military and diplomatic successes, such as how he placed a French prince on the Spanish throne. In general, Louis was an eager dancer who performed 80 roles in 40 major ballets. Britain kept Gibraltar and Menorca. [104] For Louis, ballet may not have merely been a tool for manipulation in his propaganda machinery. [64] With the advent of the French Revolution in 1789, Protestants were granted equal rights with their Roman Catholic counterparts. Louis personally supervised the captures of Mons in 1691 and Namur in 1692. [95] Louis established the Paris Foreign Missions Society, but his informal alliance with the Ottoman Empire was criticised for undermining Christendom.[96]. the image of Louis XIV in the menu is taken from PC-Game "Versailles II" created by Cryo Interactive Entertainment. The depiction of the king in this manner focused on allegorical or mythological attributes, instead of attempting to produce a true likeness. Bernini's plans were eventually shelved in favour of the elegant Louvre Colonnade designed by three Frenchmen: Louis Le Vau, Charles Le Brun, and Claude Perrault. What is certain is that reaction to the Edict was mixed. This situation did not last long, and Mazarin's unpopularity led to the creation of a coalition headed mainly by Marie de Rohan and the duchess of Longueville. Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, France's leading military strategist, warned Louis in 1689 that a hostile "Alliance" was too powerful at sea. Acceptance of the will of Charles II and consequences, See also Louis' commissioned academy of dance, discussed in, sfn error: no target: CITEREFAnselme1726 (, Louis had no children; he died aged 10 in 1795. In his will Louis XIV designates his childhood friend from the times spent at the VB mansion, François de Villeroy (on the left in the painting) to become the tutor of Louis XV. Only the "unprivileged" classes paid direct taxes, and this term came to mean the peasants only, since many bourgeois, in one way or another, obtained exemptions. Consequently, the state always received far less than what the taxpayers actually paid. [37], The French were forced to retreat from the Dutch Republic but these advantages allowed them to hold their ground in Alsace and the Spanish Netherlands, while retaking Franche-Comté. Anne kept the direction of religious policy strongly in her hand until 1661; her most important political decisions were to nominate Cardinal Mazarin as her chief minister and the continuation of her late husband's and Cardinal Richelieu's policy, despite their persecution of her, for the sake of her son. This anticipated the formation of the 1658 League of the Rhine, leading to the further diminution of Imperial power. The wound took more than two months to heal. Until he reached maturity in 1723, his kingdom was ruled by Philippe d’Orléans, Duke of Orléans as Regent of France, and Cardinal Fleury was his chief minister from 1726 until 1743. He produced no children, however, and consequently had no direct heirs. Therefore, in 1700, Louis and William III concluded a fresh partitioning agreement, the Treaty of London. This restored to non-Catholics their civil rights and the freedom to worship openly. The court was left with the impression that the vast sums of money needed to support his lifestyle could only have been obtained through embezzlement of government funds. It is notable as the first decoration that could be granted to non-nobles and is roughly the forerunner of the Légion d'honneur, with which it shares the red ribbon (though the Légion d'honneur is awarded to military personnel and civilians alike). Colbert's mercantilist administration established new industries and encouraged manufacturers and inventors, such as the Lyon silk manufacturers and the Gobelins manufactory, a producer of tapestries. By attaching nobles to his court at Versailles, Louis achieved increased control over the French aristocracy. Nonetheless, there was still a disparity between realistic representation and the demands of royal propaganda. While Mazarin might have been tempted for a short period of time to marry his niece to the King of France, Queen Anne was absolutely against this; she wanted to marry her son to the daughter of her brother, Philip IV of Spain, for both dynastic and political reasons. The threat to the royal family prompted Anne to flee Paris with the king and his courtiers. Although an attempt to restore James II failed at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690, France accumulated a string of victories from Flanders in the north, Germany in the east, and Italy and Spain in the south, to the high seas and the colonies. His supporters, however, distinguish the state, which was impoverished, from France, which was not. Eventually, therefore, Louis decided to accept Charles II's will. With his support, Colbert established from the beginning of Louis' personal reign a centralised and institutionalised system for creating and perpetuating the royal image. It effectively checked France's ability to exploit the Peace of Westphalia. The revenues of the royal domain were raised from 80,000 livres in 1661 to 5.5 million livres in 1671. From that time until his death, Mazarin was in charge of foreign and financial policy without the daily supervision of Anne, who was no longer regent. Luxembourg gave France the defensive line of the Sambre by capturing Charleroi in 1693. Louis' relationship with his mother was uncommonly affectionate for the time. It was headed by the highest-ranking French nobles, among them Louis' uncle Gaston, Duke of Orléans and first cousin Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans, Duchess of Montpensier, known as la Grande Mademoiselle; Princes of the Blood such as Condé, his brother Armand de Bourbon, Prince of Conti, and their sister the Duchess of Longueville; dukes of legitimised royal descent, such as Henri, Duke of Longueville, and François, Duke of Beaufort; so-called "foreign princes" such as Frédéric Maurice, Duke of Bouillon, his brother Marshal Turenne, and Marie de Rohan, Duchess of Chevreuse; and scions of France's oldest families, such as François de La Rochefoucauld. There were also two lesser conflicts: the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions. In 1661, Louis founded the Académie Royale de Danse, and in 1669, the Académie d'Opéra, important driving events in the evolution of ballet. He integrated ballet deeply in court social functions and fixated his nobles' attention on upholding standards in ballet dancing, effectively distracting them from political activities. Conseil des dépêches ("Council of Messages", concerning notices and administrative reports from the provinces). With the relocation of the court to Versailles, the Louvre was given over to the arts and the public. These actions enraged Britain and the Dutch Republic. He brought the Académie Française under his patronage and became its "Protector". In the end, however, despite renewed tensions with the Camisards of south-central France at the end of his reign, Louis may have helped ensure that his successor would experience fewer instances of the religion-based disturbances that had plagued his forebears. Accordingly, the king created a regency council as Louis XIII had in anticipation of Louis XIV's own minority, with some power vested in his illegitimate son Louis-Auguste de Bourbon, Duke of Maine. The earliest portrayals of Louis already followed the pictorial conventions of the day in depicting the child king as the majestically royal incarnation of France. The taille was reduced to 42 million in 1661 and 35 million in 1665; finally the revenue from indirect taxation progressed from 26 million to 55 million. A conflict with Spain marked his entire childhood, while during his reign, the kingdom took part in three major continental conflicts, each against powerful foreign alliances: the Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg, and the War of the Spanish Succession. In 1715, after a 72+ year reign, Louis XIV passed away at the Palace of Versailles. His revocation of the Edict of Nantes abolished the rights of the Huguenot Protestant minority and subjected them to a wave of dragonnades, effectively forcing Huguenots to emigrate or convert, and virtually destroying the French Protestant community. Louis agreed to withdraw his support for James Stuart, son of James II and pretender to the throne of Great Britain, and ceded Newfoundland, Rupert's Land, and Acadia in the Americas to Anne. The best example of Anne's statesmanship and the partial change in her heart towards her native Spain is seen in her keeping of one of Richelieu's men, the Chancellor of France Pierre Séguier, in his post. Cardinal Mazarin, who succeeded Richelieu as minister, ruled for Louis until he was 22. I request and order you to seal no orders except by my command . [28] The Code Louis played an important part in French legal history as the basis for the Napoleonic code, from which many modern legal codes are, in turn, derived. The anti-Bourbon Napoleon described him not only as "a great king", but also as "the only King of France worthy of the name". Louis XIV, also popularly known as the Sun King (5 September 1638–1 September 1715) was the King of France and King of Navarre from 14 May 1643 until his death. Perhaps he was motivated by religion, but it is more likely that Louis, who believed in the motto, "one king, one law, one faith," felt that the existence of this minority undermined his own political authority. Remembered for his probably apocryphal assertion, “I am the state,” Louis oversaw an absolutist regime that was the envy of monarchs across the continent, many of whom sought to emulate the French king. 1715 Great-grandson Louis XV becomes the 4th Bourbon King of France. But attachments formed later by shared qualities of the spirit are far more difficult to break than those formed merely by blood. With his excellent memory, Louis could then see who attended him at court and who was absent, facilitating the subsequent distribution of favours and positions. Among the better documented are Louise de La Vallière (with whom he had five children; 1661–67), Bonne de Pons d'Heudicourt (1665), Catherine Charlotte de Gramont (1665), Françoise-Athénaïs, Marquise de Montespan (with whom he had seven children; 1667–80), Anne de Rohan-Chabot (1669–75), Claude de Vin des Œillets (one child born in 1676), Isabelle de Ludres (1675–78), and Marie Angélique de Scorailles (1679–81), who died at age 19 in childbirth. Meanwhile, diplomatic relations were initiated with distant countries. The system was outrageously unjust in throwing a heavy tax burden on the poor and helpless. Jump to navigation Jump to search ... Louis Phélypeaux de Pontchartrain‎ (1 C, 8 F) [46] Furthermore, Louis' librarian and translator Arcadio Huang was Chinese.[47][48]. He sailed for England with troops despite Louis's warning that France would regard it as a provocation. [31] The dowry was never paid and would later play a part persuading his maternal first cousin Charles II of Spain to leave his empire to Philip, Duke of Anjou (later Philip V of Spain), the grandson of Louis XIV and Maria Theresa. With the help of his finance minister, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Louis XIV established reforms that cut France's deficit and promoted industrial growth. [118], Alternatively, Louis' critics attribute the social upheaval culminating in the French Revolution to his failure to reform French institutions while the monarchy was still secure. Numerous quotes have been attributed to Louis XIV by legend. King Charles II ruled a vast empire comprising Spain, Naples, Sicily, Milan, the Spanish Netherlands, and numerous Spanish colonies. In 1660, Louis had married Philip IV's eldest daughter, Maria Theresa, as one of the provisions of the 1659 Treaty of the Pyrenees. However, the death of Narai, King of Ayutthaya, the execution of his pro-French minister Constantine Phaulkon, and the Siege of Bangkok in 1688 ended this era of French influence. In peacetime he concentrated on preparing for the next war. By the Truce of Ratisbon, in 1684, Spain was forced to acquiesce in the French occupation of most of the conquered territories, for 20 years.[39]. Louis used court ritual and the arts to validate and augment his control over France. Louis is a member of the House of Bourbon, a branch of the Capetian dynasty and of the Robertians. Louis, however, struck more than 300 to celebrate the story of the king in bronze, that were enshrined in thousands of households throughout France. It arose from two events in the Rhineland. Emperor Leopold ministers of louis xiv and regain international prestige after the battles of Marsaglia and Staffarde 1693... 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